Materials are an important part of architectural decoration. The form, style and content of buildings are inseparable from the existence of materials. Decorative materials are the basic elements of architectural effects. At present, there are many building materials in the society, and they are diverse. The choice of materials determines the overall effect of the building or affects the final style of the building.
Ancient humans lived in caves and did not know how to use materials, so the "building" would have poor moisture and cold resistance. With the increase of knowledge and the change of dynasties, mankind understood that wood can build houses and keep out the cold, so wooden frame buildings came into being and occupied an important position at that time. However, the fire and moisture resistance of wood is poor. Humans have learned how to use useful materials such as stone in the study and practice. Heidegger believes that living is the most fundamental way for human beings to exist in the world, and human beings can only live in the world through construction. Get a foothold in existence. The means to realize the existence of buildings is through materials. From the popularization of masonry buildings, the transformation and use of building materials, we can see that the relationship between building and materials has been mutual existence from the beginning.
1. Introduction to steel
The use of materials reflects its importance to architecture, and different materials will also bring us different visual impacts. Secondly, the properties of different materials are also different, and there are also differences between various materials in terms of hardness, strength, moisture resistance, and corrosion resistance. Choosing the properties of materials is also an important task in architectural decoration. With the increasing requirements of human beings for the use of buildings, many materials have begun to become popular. For example, the use of steel is one of the important signs of the development and progress of modern architecture. For modern architecture, one of the most influential technical factors is the more and more widespread use of steel in architecture, which is also regarded as a strong "modern sense". One of the pronouns of architecture.
"The construction industry mainly uses steel in ferrous metal materials, and cast iron is mainly used for cast iron products (such as pressure pipes, etc.). Most of China's construction steel is low-carbon steel (carbon content less than 0.25%) smelted by open hearth and oxygen top-blown converters. , Medium carbon steel (carbon content 0.25~0.60%) and low-alloy steel, and produced by boiling steel or killed steel process, in which boiling steel is worse than killed steel due to impact, aging, cold brittleness, and it is in some structures when used. There are some restrictions in the medium, such as railway bridges, heavy duty crane beams, etc.".
2. The development of steel materials in construction
The correct way to handle materials is the way to truly use materials and to truly solve our needs. In the early days, steel was only used to build bridges, railway tracks, etc. After being familiar with the characteristics of steel, steel has begun to be widely used in various warehouses or factory buildings. The earliest surviving steel structure building-the Banyang and Marshall factory buildings in Shrewsbury, England in 1796. This building used steel as a support column and used steel structure for the first time. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, with the rapid economic development, steel as a new building material began to be more and more widely used in buildings. The famous Eiffel Tower in France is the most concentrated embodiment of construction engineering technology at that time.
The rapid development of steel structure has made many achievements in our country. In the development of modern design space and structure, buildings with steel structure as the main body have gradually become the mainstream, and with the frequent use of building steel, their own requirements have gradually increased. Due to the previous restrictions on the use of steel materials, buildings often Adopting the traditional model, although there are differences compared with reinforced concrete, masonry buildings, etc., now that the types of steel materials increase and the continuous improvement of steel structure technology, the requirements for structural nodes such as steel pipes and steel structure concrete have also changed accordingly. , Can be combined with high-strength steel, glass, stainless steel, etc. And there have been new developments in construction technology. The promotion of steel structure buildings not only reflects the development of construction, but also reflects our progressive requirements for materials.
Compared with concrete structures, steel structures are relatively environmentally friendly and are currently more conducive to the development of building industrialization. At the same time, steel structures have low fire resistance and can better participate in large-span and super high-rise buildings. The steel structure itself has unique advantages such as light weight, high strength, and fast construction. Therefore, it is ideal to use steel structure for high-rise and large-span venues. Many venues in the Shanghai World Expo this year will use steel support. The giant steel structure in steel materials is a brand-new system of high-rise or super high-rise buildings, which is produced to meet special or comprehensive functions. It has good architectural adaptability and potential high-efficiency structural performance, with excellent overall effect and thrust stiffness.
3. The embodiment of steel materials in the architectural space
The style embodied by the environment is usually also influenced by materials. On the one hand, the use of materials determines the nature of the environment. On the other hand, the formation of the environment cannot be separated from the shaping of materials. Architectural space is usually divided according to function, and the difference in the use of space is sometimes the scope of material consideration. Different materials are used, and the space, purpose and atmosphere created will be different.
The accelerating pace of modern building renewal has also made steel more and more favored in this architectural environment, and the degree of integration with various materials has gradually improved, and it has also brought people different visual effects and feelings. In space, steel can be combined with glass or quaint blue bricks to form different spatial forms. For example, when steel meets glass, a modern architectural space will be constructed, which collides with blue bricks and creates a modern sense. The texture composed of strong glass, steel and the unique taste of gray blue bricks forms a space form combining modern and original, and these two spaces will have extremely different effects and artistic concepts.
Compared with stone and wood, steel material shows its outstanding side. It has unique advantages such as light weight, high strength, compression resistance, bending resistance, and fast construction. Therefore, it is suitable for high-rise, large-span, especially super The use of steel structure is ideal for high-rise buildings and large spans. At the same time, the workability of steel materials is strong, and the processing methods on the steel facade have become more diversified. Patterns can be cast, which will also affect the form of the building in many ways. For example: The stone pillars are much slender, and this structure can make the interior space of the building more spacious. Therefore, many large buildings are now gradually turning to steel frame structures in the use of materials.
The steel can also be decorated in a variety of different colors according to the needs, and the material is uniform, the performance is stable and reliable, and it can withstand loads of various properties, which further enhances its use efficiency.
However, when steel materials are not processed, rust will usually develop on the surface. Once the steel materials used in construction are damaged by rust, it will affect the robustness or beauty of the building, causing great damage to the building. At the same time, steel also has the disadvantages of high energy consumption, poor fire resistance, and high maintenance costs. However, after long-term practical experience and consideration, according to this shortcoming of steel materials, we can take measures to prevent corrosion.
Material is an important factor that designers need to consider in the conception of the plan, and it is also one of the keys to the success or failure of the architectural decoration. With the general application of steel structure buildings, we are more aware of the potential of steel. However, no matter what When using materials, we must recognize its use characteristics and identify its shortcomings, so that it can play a greater role in the application of building materials.